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Brainwaves Overview

What are Brainwaves? | Stimulating the Brain | Methods | A Brief History

What are Brainwaves?

Your brain is made up of billions of brain cells called neurons, which use electricity to communicate with each other. The combination of millions of neurons sending signals at once produces an enormous amount of electrical activity in the brain, which can be detected using sensitive medical equipment (such as an EEG), measuring electricity levels over areas of the scalp.

The combination of electrical activity of the brain is commonly called a BrainWave pattern, because of its cyclic, "wave-like" nature.

Below is one of the first recordings of brain activity.

Here is a more modern EEG recording:

Brainwave Frequencies

With the discovery of brainwaves came the discovery that electrical activity in the brain will change depending on what the person is doing. For instance, the brainwaves of a sleeping person are vastly different than the brainwaves of someone wide awake. Over the years, more sensitive equipment has brought us closer to figuring out exactly what brainwaves represent and with that, what they mean about a person's health and state of mind.

Here is a table showing the known brainwave types and their associated mental states:

Associated Mental State
Gamma 27 Hz and up

Gamma is associated with the formation of ideas, language and memory processing, and various types of learning. Gamma waves have been shown to disappear during deep sleep induced by anesthesia, but return with the transition back to a wakeful state.

Beta 12hz - 38hz

Wide awake. This is generally the mental state most people are in during the day and most of their waking lives. Usually, this state in itself is uneventful, but don't underestimate its importance. Many people lack sufficient beta activity, which can cause mental or emotional disorders such as depression, ADD and insomnia. Stimulating beta activity can improve emotional stability, energy levels, attentiveness and concentration.

Alpha 8hz - 12hz

Awake but relaxed and not processing much information. When you get up in the morning and just before sleep, you are naturally in this state. When you close your eyes your brain automatically starts producing more alpha waves.

Alpha is usually the goal of experienced meditators, but to enter it using Mind WorkStation is incredibly easy. Since alpha is a very receptive, absorbent mental state, you can also use it for effective self-hypnosis, mental re-programming and more.

For more information on alpha waves, see the Alpha Brain Waves Infographic.

Theta 3hz - 8hz

Light sleep or extreme relaxation.

Theta can also be used for hypnosis and self-programming using pre-recorded suggestions.

Delta 0.2hz - 3hz Deep, dreamless sleep. Delta is the slowest band of brainwaves. When your dominant brainwave is delta, your body is healing itself and "resetting" its internal clocks. You do not dream in this state and are completely unconscious.


For more information about each brainwave frequency, and the corresponding benefits of stimulation at that frequency, check out our infographic series. These images contain an in-depth overview of some of the most significant, peer-reviewed research into the benefits of brainwave entrainment.


The Significance of Brainwaves

You can tell a lot about a person simply by observing their brainwave patterns. For example, anxious people tend to produce an overabundance of high Beta waves while people with ADD/ADHD tend to produce an overabundance of slower Alpha/Theta brainwaves.

Researchers have found that not only are brainwaves representative of of mental state, but they can be stimulated to change a person's mental state, and this in turn can help with a variety of mental issues.

See the section of Brainwave Stimulation.

For technical questions see the Entrainment Methods section or FAQ